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Read the following passage and indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5.

Effects of television on childhood literacy

Nowadays, television occupies a large portion of children’s time. From when they start in preschool, children spend more time watching television than participating in any other (1) _____ except sleeping. (2) _____, this is not necessarily a bad thing.

The results of some research suggest that there is considerable overlap between the comprehension processes activated while reading and the processes (3) _____ take place during a period of television viewing. If this is so, it may very well be the case that children who learn comprehension skills from television viewing before they are ready to read are (4) ____ with some very important tools when they later learn to read. It has been noted that children are frequently better at recalling televised stories thay have watched compared to those they have simply heard. Due to the fact that it is a visual medium, television can present information more concretely than written and spoken text, making it an ideal medium in which to (5) ____ some of the skills and knowledge needed for later reading.

Read the following passage and indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 1 to 5.

Edinburg, the capital of Scotland, is in the south-east of the country. Edinburgh is situated on the coast, and the beautiful, green Pentland hills are not far from the city centre. Castle Rock stands in the centre of Edinburgh and is the best place for fantastic views of the city. With a population of almost half a million people, the city is an exciting MIX of traditional and modern.

The first stop for most visitors to the city is the castle on Castle Rock. IT is certainly worth a visit and the area nearby is full of shops that sell whisky and tartans to the tourist. Edinburgh’s most famous street, the Royal Mile, runs from the castle to the Palace of Holyroodhouse and the Scottish Parliament. Along the street, you can see many interesting buildings and you can stop for a drink at a traditional, old Scottish pub.

During your visit, you should certainly take the time to see other parts of the city. Princes Street has lovely gardens, museums and shops. The New Town is a superb area for walking with its attractive 18th century houses, offices and churches. Finally, the Grassmarket is an old part of the city, which is full of cafés, bars and restaurants.

Edinburgh’s nightlife is excellent. Clubs usually stay open until three in the morning. You can hear live music in pubs, choose from a number of first-class cinemas or go to a “ceilidh” (a traditional Scottish dance).

The best time to come to the city is in August. Thousands of people visit the Edinburgh Festival, the world’s biggest arts festival held every summer. With concerts, opera, theatre and art exhibitions, there is something for everyone. For winter visitors, Hogmanay (the Scottish New Year) is also an incredible experience that you will never forget.

Ảnh: Grisworld Middle School

Ảnh: Grisworld Middle School

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